Petersburg could boast that it commanded the largest army in Europe in numberspoor roads, antiquated weapons, and low morale prohibited the effective use of that awesome potential power. The defeat proved to the autocracy in charge that Russia had fallen dangerously behind its Western neighbors, making it vulnerable to future attack and invasion. Why had Russia lost?
The demoralized Russian Army suffered severe military setbacks, and many captured soldiers deserted the front lines. Dissatisfaction with the monarchy and its policy of continuing the war grew among the Russian people.
The Russian Provisional Government was installed immediately following the fall of the Tsar by the Provisional Committee of the State Duma in early March and received conditional support of the Mensheviks. The new Provisional Government maintained its commitment to the war, joining the Triple Entente which the Bolsheviks opposed.
The Provisional Government also postponed the land reforms demanded by the Bolsheviks.
As seen by Lenin, Russia was reverting to the rule of the Tsar, and it was the job of Marxist revolutionaries, who truly represented socialism and the proletariat, to oppose such counter-socialistic ideas and support socialist revolutions in other countries.
Within the military, mutiny and desertion were pervasive among conscripts, though being AWOL Absent Without Leave was not uncommon throughout all ranks. The intelligentsia was dissatisfied over the slow pace of social reforms; poverty was worsening, income disparities and inequality were becoming out of control while the Provisional Government grew increasingly autocratic and inefficient.
The government appeared to be on the verge of succumbing to a military junta. Deserting soldiers returned to the cities and gave their weapons to angry, and extremely hostile, socialist factory workers.
The deplorable and inhumane poverty and starvation of major Russian centers produced optimum conditions for revolutionaries.
During the months between February and Octoberthe power of the Provisional Government was consistently questioned by nearly all political parties.
The Soviet also believed that the new Provisional Government would be tasked with implementing democratic reforms and pave the way for a proletarian revolution. However, the Provisional Government still remained an overwhelmingly powerful governing body. Failed military offensives in summer and large scale protesting and riots in major Russian cities as advocated by Lenin in his Theses, known as the July Days led to the deployment of troops in late August to restore order.
The July Days were suppressed and blamed on the Bolsheviks, forcing Lenin into hiding. Still, rather than use force, many of the deployed soldiers and military personnel joined the rioters, disgracing the government and military at-large. On 24 October, in early days of the October Revolution, the Provisional Government moved against the Bolsheviks, arresting activists and destroying pro-Communist propaganda.
The administrative offices and government buildings were taken with little opposition or bloodshed. The generally accepted end of this transitional revolutionary period, which will lead to the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR lies with the assault and capture of the poorly defended Winter Palace the traditional home and symbol of power of the Tsar on the evening of 26 October The Mensheviks and the right-wing of the Socialist Revolutionaries, outraged by the abusive and coercive acts carried out by the Red Guard and Bolsheviks, fled Petrograd, leaving control in the hands of the Bolsheviks and remaining Left Socialist Revolutionaries.
On 25 Octoberthe Sovnarkom was established by the Russian Constitution of as the administrative arm of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets. By 6 Januarythe VTsIKsupported by the Bolsheviks, ratified the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assemblywhich intended to establish the non-Bolshevik Russian Democratic Federative Republic as the permanent form of government established at its Petrograd session held 5 and 6 January Russian Civil War poster, "Mount your horses, workers and peasants!
The Red Cavalry is the pledge of victory.
Fighting the civil war would actually force the party to put these principles into practice. Arguing that the revolution needed not a mere parliamentary organization but a party of action which would function as a scientific body of direction, a vanguard of activists, and a central control organ, the Tenth Party Congress banned factions within the party, initially intending it only to be a temporary measure after the shock of the Kronstadt rebellion.
It was also argued that the party should be an elite body of professional revolutionaries dedicating their lives to the cause and carrying out their decisions with iron discipline, thus moving toward putting loyal party activists in charge of new and old political institutions, army units, factories, hospitals, universities, and food suppliers.
Against this backdrop, the nomenklatura system would evolve and become standard practice. In theory, this system was to be democratic since all leading party organs would be elected from below, but also centralized since lower bodies would be accountable to higher organizations. In practice, "democratic centralism" was centralist, with decisions of higher organs binding on lower ones, and the composition of lower bodies largely determined by the members of higher ones.
Over time, party cadres would grow increasingly careerist and professional. Party membership required exams, special courses, special camps, schools, and nominations by three existing members.Lenin held that in Russia the peasantry must be an integral part of the socialist government, because of their numbers and because the peasants, especially the poor peasants, overwhelmingly supported socialism.
He explained that given Russia’s particular conditions, a dictatorship of the proletariat and poor peasantry was needed. Throughout the summer of , Lenin lay close to death, and a lull settled over the political struggle. But the battle lines were forming in the Politburo and Central Committee.
Trotsky seemed to hold the most powerful position, thanks to his close friendship with Lenin before the Soviet leader's strokes, but an opposition had already begun to emerge. Lenin in Between and the Bolshevik party went through a baptism of fire which transformed it from a revolutionary splinter group into a party of government.
During that period it faced intense opposition from a bewildering array of political, military, social and national groups. The Cost of Keeping Lenin Looking Like Lenin. carefully preserved since his death in To maintain the precise condition of Lenin's body, the staff must perform regular maintenance on.
"Reform" in Russia () Summary The Russian defeat in the Crimean War was a wake-up call to the autocracy. While St. Petersburg could boast that it commanded the largest army in Europe (in numbers), poor roads, antiquated weapons, and low morale prohibited the effective use of .
Shortly after Lenin's death in , the letter was found and publicized by Trotsky's opponents within the Communist Party to portray him as Lenin's enemy.
He reached Russia on 17 May After his return, Trotsky substantially agreed with the Bolshevik position, but did not join them right away.
He made it clear that he also intended Political party: RSDLP, SDPS, Mezhraiontsy, CPSU, Fourth International.