In this chapter, we begin to study how to apply security in computing. We start with why we need security at the program level and how we can achieve it. In one form or another, protecting programs is at the heart of computer security.
Control or monitor physical processes and equipment Architecture Enterprise wide infrastructure and applications generic Event-driven, real-time, embedded hardware and software custom Interfaces GUI, Web browser, terminal and keyboard Electromechanical, sensors, actuators, coded displays, hand-held devices Ownership Engineers, technicians, operators and managers Connectivity Control networks, hard wired twisted pair and IP-based Role Supports people Controls machines The National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST has been a primary source of IT cyber standards and guides.
ICS or OT has traditionally not received the same level of cyber scrutiny as the IT systems; however, malware such as Stuxnet, Duqu, and Flame are now specifically designed to infect the OT components and devices at the firmware or Project File level, and then inject false commands to spoof the operator's Human Machine Interface HMI console, establish a command and control channel to exfiltrate data technical specifications, floor plans, drawings, etc.
All control systems should be on a separate network with multiple levels of DMZs and sub-networks. Defending Building Control Systems: The WBDG Cybersecurity Resource Page is meant to be primarily for the buildings community, but also has additional information and links to other control systems, workshops, and training.
Whereas the IT community has had almost two decades to learn and implement cybersecurity, the OT community will have an accelerated learning curve and will need to work closely with senior management, IT, and other stakeholders to properly cybersecure their assets.
Every building owner should have a building cybersecurity strategy and have the following key documents that cover both the IT and OT assets: Key to the recommendations is to bring the physical security specialists, facility engineers and managers, IT, system integrators, and property owner to the table to conduct assessments and develop System Security Plans.
It defines a process based on the Risk Management Framework suitable for control systems of any impact rating, and applies to all planning, design and construction, renovation, and repair of new and existing facilities and installations that result in DoD real property assets, regardless of funding source.
The publication is generic enough such that can it be used by any organization. The site provides step-by-step instructions to create a baseline risk assessment in the planning and design phases, how to create a Test and Development Environment, a Design and Construction Sequence Table that identifies deliverables and expected timeframe such as when and how to perform Factory Acceptance Testing FAT in the construction phase; and conduct full Site Acceptance Testing to include penetration testing for system turnover, templates, resources and tools.
Related Issues Building Design to Mitigate the Potential for a Progressive Collapse Progressive collapse is loosely defined as a situation where a localized failure of a primary structural element leads to the collapse of adjacent structural elements, which propagates to disproportionate collapse of the structure.
ASCE 7 states "Progressive collapse is defined as the spread of an initial local failure from element to element, eventually resulting in the collapse of an entire structure or disproportionately large part of it.
The phenomenon is applicable to structure of any appreciable size and type of construction. Concern is greatest for taller structures, as the propagation mechanism is typically vertical.
Design guidelines for the prevention of progressive collapse typically take a threat-independent approach that, regardless of initial cause, is intended to develop inherent robustness and continuity in the structure to resist and arrest propagation of failure.
For example, design of a structural frame to resist propagation of damage after loss of a primary vertical-load-carrying element such as a load-bearing wall or column is a typical threat-independent approach to providing this resistance.
This approach assumes complete damage of the structural element being considered and enhances the structure to prevent disproportionate spread of damage.
By assuming loss of single vertical-load-carrying elements at key locations in the structure, the designer can reduce the potential for progressive collapse, should an initiating event occur. Each of these guidelines provides methods for analysis and measures of acceptability to meet each specific criterion.
These Progressive Collapse guidelines GSA and UFC are currently the most complete sets of criteria in terms of providing usable guidance to the designer. Additional discussion of the role of Progressive Collapse mitigation measures in securing buildings can be found in the resource pages for Blast Safety of the Building Envelope and Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats.
Crash Rated Barriers and Applicable Standards A successful site security plan often involves the establishment and enforcement of a controlled perimeter. The controlled perimeter may act to prevent threats that are transported by vehicles or by pedestrians from entering a standoff zone around a protected facility.
A controlled perimeter that is designed to stop a vehicle from entering a protected site is often required to be "crash" or "anti-ram" rated. A crash rated barrier system is typically tested or engineered such that it can stop a certain size vehicle i.
The vehicle size, vehicle speed and penetration distance are typically determined based on the accessibility of the site, the topography and alignment of the surrounding roadways and the required standoff distance.
Crash rated barriers take various forms and can include bollards, cable reinforced fences and planters.Designated computers negotiate security parameters to protect the managing of the tunnel itself using IKE (Internet Key Exchange); the result of this negotiation is called the .
Hiding a picture which can be traced by using Paint or any other drawing tool.  Network. All information hiding techniques that may be used to exchange steganograms in telecommunication networks can be classified under the general term of network steganography.
In computer science, information hiding is the principle of segregation of the design decisions in a computer program that are most likely to change, thus protecting other parts of the program from extensive modification if the design decision is changed.
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PLAY. The most popular modern version of steganography involves hiding information within files that appear to contain digital pictures or other images.
Double DES was created to provide a level of. There’s a secret code passengers can give to airport security if they’re hiding an engagement ring from their partner.
Glossary of cyber security terms The technical terms in this glossary are not comprehensive, they are intended only as a basic aid to understanding the pages on this website. A much more comprehensive Jargon Buster can be found on the government’s Get Safe Online website.