Alphanumeric outline[ edit ] An alphanumeric outline includes a prefix at the beginning of each topic as a reference aid.
Like the role played by Parisian FrenchCairene Arabic is by far the most dominant dialect in all areas of national life. Geographic distribution[ edit ] The total number of Egyptian Arabic users in all countries is over Among the spoken varieties of Arabicstandard Egyptian Arabic based on the dialect of the Egyptian capital is the only one to have become a lingua franca in other parts of the Arabic-speaking world for two main reasons: Also, many Lebanese artists choose to sing in Egyptian and Lebanese.
Standard Egyptian Arabic when used in documents, broadcast media, prepared speeches, and sometimes in liturgical purpose, is Cairene Arabic with loanwords from Modern Standard Arabic origin or code-switching between Cairene Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic. History[ edit ] The Egyptians slowly adopted the Arabic as a written language following the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the seventh century.
Until then, they had spoken either Koine Greek or Egyptian in its Coptic form. A period of Coptic-Arabic bilingualism in Lower Egypt lasted for more than three centuries. The period would last much longer in the south.
Arabic may have been already familiar to Egyptians through pre-Islamic trade with Bedouins in the Sinai Peninsula and the easternmost part of the Nile Delta. Egyptian Arabic seems to have begun taking shape in Fustatthe first Islamic capital of Egypt, now part of Cairo.
It contains key information on early Egyptian Arabic and the language situation in Egypt in the Middle Ages. With the ongoing Islamization and Arabization of the country, Egyptian Arabic slowly supplanted spoken Coptic.
Local chroniclers mention the continued use of Coptic as a spoken language until the 17th century by peasant women in Upper Egypt. Coptic is still the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
Official status[ edit ] Egyptian Arabic has no official status and is not officially recognized as a language.
Modern Standard Arabica modernized form of Classical Arabic also called Qur'anic Arabicis the official language of Egypt see diglossia. Interest in the local vernacular began in the s, as the Egyptian national movement for self-determination was taking shape.
For many decades to follow, questions about the reform and the modernization of Arabic were hotly debated in Egyptian intellectual circles. They adopted a modernist, secular approach and disagreed with the assumption that Arabic was an immutable language because of its association with the Qur'an.
The first modern Egyptian novel in which the dialogue was written in the vernacular was Muhammad Husayn Haykal 's Zaynab in It was inly in that Mustafa Musharafa's Kantara Who Disbelieved was released, the first novel to be written entirely in Egyptian Arabic.
That dwindled with the rise of Egyptian Arab nationalismwhich had gained wide popularity in Egypt by the final years of the Muhammad Ali dynastyas demonstrated vividly by Egypt's involvement in the Arab—Israeli War under King Farouk of Egypt.
The Egyptian revolution ofled by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasserfurther enhanced the significance of Arab nationalism, making it a central element of Egyptian state policy.
The importance of Modern Standard Arabic was reemphasised in the public sphere by the revolutionary government, and efforts to accord any formal language status to the Egyptian vernacular were ignored.
Egyptian Arabic was identified as a mere dialect, one that was not spoken even in all of Egypt, as almost all of Upper Egypt speaks Sa'idi Arabic.
Though the revolutionary government heavily sponsored the use of the Egyptian vernacular in films, plays, television programmes, and music, the prerevolutionary use of Modern Standard Arabic in official publications was retained.
Linguistic commentators have noted the multi-faceted approach of the Egyptian revolutionaries towards the Arabic language. Whereas Egypt's first presidentMohammed Naguib exhibited a preference for using Modern Standard Arabic in his public speeches, his successor, Gamal Abdel Nasser was renowned for using the vernacular and for punctuating his speeches with traditional Egyptian words and expressions.
Conversely, Modern Standard Arabic was the norm for state news outlets, including newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. That was especially true of Egypt's national broadcasting company, the Arab Radio and Television Unionwhich was established with the intent of providing content for the entire Arab worldnot merely Egypt, hence the need to broadcast in the standard, rather than the vernacular, language.
The Voice of the Arabs radio station, in particular, had an audience from across the region, and the use of anything other than Modern Standard Arabic was viewed as eminently incongruous. As the status of Egyptian Arabic as opposed to Classical Arabic can have such political and religious implications in Egypt, the question of whether Egyptian Arabic should be considered a "dialect" or "language" can be a source of debate.
In sociolinguisticsEgyptian Arabic can be seen as one of many distinct varieties that, despite arguably being languages on abstand grounds, are united by a common dachsprache in Modern Standard Arabic MSA.
Publications[ edit ] During the early s many portions of the Bible were published in Egyptian Arabic. These were published by the Nile Mission Press.
It carries little prestige nationally but continues to be widely spoken, with 19, speakers,  including in the north by rural migrants who have adapted partially to Egyptian Arabic. The differences throughout Egypt, however, are more wide-ranging and do not neatly correspond to the simple division.
The language shifts from the eastern to the western parts of the Nile Deltaand the varieties spoken from Giza to Minya are further grouped into a Middle Egypt cluster.Augusta County — where a high school teacher assigned Arabic calligraphy — is the latest to wrestle with how the religion should be portrayed in the classroom.
An outline, also called a hierarchical outline, is a list arranged to show hierarchical relationships and is a type of tree urbanagricultureinitiative.com outline is used to present the main points (in sentences) or topics (terms) of a given subject.
Each item in an outline may be divided into additional sub-items. If an organizational level in an outline is to be sub-divided, it shall have at least two.
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