There has been much discussion in the media about the impacts of the reforms on political parties, such as introducing a hybrid system of Proportional Representation and First-Past-the-Postabolishing preferential voting, and adding 30 additional seats to Parliament. So, will political leaders seize this moment?
Traditionally there were four main areas of research: The sociopolitical formation of the modern state ; How public opinionideologiespersonalities, social movementsand trends outside of the formal institutions of political power affect formal politics; Power relationships within and between social groups e.
Elite or managerial theory is sometimes called a state-centered approach. It explains what the state does by looking at constraints from organizational structure, semi-autonomous state managers, and interests that arise from the state as a unique, power-concentrating organization.
A leading representative is Theda Skocpol. Social class theory analysis emphasizes the political power of capitalist elites. The power structure approach focuses on the question of who rules and its most well-known representative is G.
The structuralist approach emphasizes the way a capitalist economy operates; only allowing and encouraging the state to do some things but not others Nicos PoulantzasBob Jessop. Pluralism and power relations[ edit ] Contemporary political sociology takes these questions seriously, but it is concerned with the play of power and politics across societies, which includes, but is not restricted to, relations between the state and society.
In part, this is a product of the growing complexity of social relations, the impact of social movement organizing, and the relative weakening of the state as a result of globalization. To a significant part, however, it is due to the radical rethinking of social theory. This is as much focused now on micro questions such as the formation of identity through social interaction, the politics of knowledge, and the effects of the contestation of meaning on structuresas it is on macro questions such as how to capture and use state power.
Political sociology attempts to explore the dynamics between the two institutional systems introduced by the advent of Western capitalist system that are the democratic constitutional liberal state and the capitalist economy.
While democracy promises impartiality and legal equality before all citizens, the capitalist system results in unequal economic power and thus possible political inequality as well. For pluralists,  the distribution of political power is not determined by economic interests but by multiple social divisions and political agendas.
The diverse political interests and beliefs of different factions work together through collective organizations to create a flexible and fair representation that in turn influences political parties which make the decisions.
The distribution of power is then achieved through the interplay of contending interest groups. The government in this model functions just as a mediating broker and is free from control by any economic power. This pluralistic democracy however requires the existence of an underlying framework that would offer mechanisms for citizenship and expression and the opportunity to organize representations through social and industrial organizations, such as trade unions.
Ultimately, decisions are reached through the complex process of bargaining and compromise between various groups pushing for their interests.
Many factors, pluralists believe, have ended the domination of the political sphere by an economic elite. The power of organized labour and the increasingly interventionist state have placed restrictions on the power of capital to manipulate and control the state.
Additionally, capital is no longer owned by a dominant class, but by an expanding managerial sector and diversified shareholders, none of whom can exert their will upon another.
The pluralist emphasis on fair representation however overshadows the constraints imposed on the extent of choice offered. Bachrauch and Baratz  examined the deliberate withdrawal of certain policies from the political arena. For example, organized movements that express what might seem as radical change in a society can often by portrayed as illegitimate.Google stands accused of employing former goverment officials in order to get close to government.
Photograph: Pawel Kopczynski/Reuters New concerns have been raised about the political influence. PESTEL is a strategic analytical tool and the acronym stands for political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors. Alphabet (Google) PESTEL analysis involves the analysis of potential impact of these factors on the bottom line on long-term growth prospects.
Political Factors From the political perspective, the reasons for Ryukyuan people to shift their major language from Ryukyuan to Japanese included the standardization of language during the building of modern nation state of Japan and the nationalism which emerged in Ryukyuan society during the United States (U.S.) occupation period.
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Google plays an active role in shaping the political environment in some of the countries in which it operates. Political Order in Changing Societies is a book by Samuel P. Huntington dealing with changes in political systems and political urbanagricultureinitiative.comgton argues that those changes are caused by tensions within the political and social system, and criticizes modernization theory, contending that its argument for economic change and development being the prime factors responsible for the.