Significance of the Normal Flora The normal flora influences the anatomy, physiology, susceptibility to pathogens, and morbidity of the host. Skin Flora The varied environment of the skin results in locally dense or sparse populations, with Gram-positive organisms e. Oral and Upper Respiratory Tract Flora A varied microbial flora is found in the oral cavity, and streptococcal anaerobes inhabit the gingival crevice.
Microorganisms regularly found at any anatomical site are collectively referred to as normal flora. The normal flora present in the body is highly complex and consists of more than species of bacteria. The residency of normal flora depends upon several factors, including age, genetics, sex, nutrition and diet of the person.
Therefore, humans have a mutualistic relationship with many of the microorganisms of their indigenous microflora. Nutritional benefits, stimulation of the immune system, and colonization strategies are acquired by the host from the normal flora.
The normal flora exhibits a tissue preference for colonization. This is referred to as tissue tropism. This is due to the host has the essential growth factor and nutrients Normal flora essay a particular microflora.
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Besides, the normal flora can specifically colonize to a particular tissue with capsules, fimbriae, and cell wall components. In addition, some of the indigenous bacteria are able to construct bacteria biofilms on a tissue surface.
There are two types of normal flora found which are resident microflora and transient microflora. Resident microflora is defined as the organisms that are always present in the body while transient microflora is those present temporarily and under certain conditions.
Human is first colonized by a normal flora at the moment of birth and passage through the birth canal. A fetus has no normal flora. During and after delivery, a newborn is exposed to many microorganisms from its mother, food, air, and basically everything that in contact with the infants.
The resident microflora of the skin consists of bacteria and fungi which is approximately 30 different types.
The high amount of microorganisms can be found at moist and warm condition in hairy areas of the body where there are many sweat and oil glands, such as under the arms, the groin, moist folds between the toes and fingers. Whereas at dry, calloused areas of skin have fairly low amount of bacterial cells.
The majority of skin microorganisms are found on the most superficial layers of the skin and upper part of the hair follicle. They consist of Staphylococcus epidermis and Micrococcus app and corynebacteria. These are considered as commensal ad generally nonpathogenic.
However, pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus is found on the face and hands, particularly in individuals who are nasal carriers. The respiratory tract can be divided into upper respiratory and the lower respiratory tract.
The nares are mainly colonized, predominantly with Staphylococcus epidermis and corynebacteria with Straphylococcusaureas. The healthy sinuses, in contrast are sterile. The lower respiratory tract is usually free of microbes, mainly because of the efficient cleaning action of the ciliated epithelium which lines the tract.
For the microflora in the conjunctiva, numbers of bacteria may be cultivated from the normal conjunctiva but the number of organisms is usually small. Staphylococcus epidermis and certain coryneforms are dominant.The topic is gut flora.
It should include words. Please use the outline below. No references. Please include a cover page. urbanagricultureinitiative.comUCTION. Intro to Microbiology: Gram stain: Gram + Gram - Exotoxin Except Listeria has endotoxin Endotoxin Except Capsules Strep pneumo VERY Dangerous: (Some Strange Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules).
This free Health essay on Essay: Flora in the oral cavity is perfect for Health students to use as an example. The normal flora of humans consists of a few eucaryotic fungi and protists, but bacteria are the most numerous and obvious microbial components of the normal flora.
Figure 1. Gram stain of a species of Micrococcus, commonly isolated from the skin and nasal membranes of humans. Normal flora is a population of micro-organisms that infect the body without causing disease. Some organisms establish a permanent relationship, as urbanagricultureinitiative.com is always found in large intestines of humans; others like streptococci are transient.
The normal flora of humans consists of a few eucaryotic fungi and protists, but bacteria are the most numerous and obvious microbial components of the normal flora. Figure 1. Gram stain of a species of Micrococcus, commonly isolated from the skin and nasal membranes of humans.