Human nature is one of the most controversial topics in society, since the topic can be interpreted in several different viewpoints. Two reputable English philosophers had two opposing extreme interpretations of the nature of humanity.
Thomas Hobbes — English philosopher, political theorist, essayist, critic, scientist, and autobiographer. It was in Leviathan that Hobbes wrote the famous description of man's life in nature as "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
The sovereign, called the Leviathan by Hobbes, exercises absolute power over his subjects and maintains the peace.
Succinct and contentious, Hobbes enraged many readers with such statements as "The universe is corporeal; all that is real is material, and what is not material is not real. Such ideas, expressed so confidently and in an uncommonly accessible style, created an instant uproar, especially in ecclesiastical circles.
Contemptuously dismissing Aristotle and his followers, Hobbes declared himself the creator of civil philosophy, what would today be called political science.
Heavily influenced by his friend Galileo Galilei, Hobbes was a mechanist who viewed the world as matter in motion and man as movement of limbs. His Machiavellian insistence on looking at things as they are, not as they should be, his contention that expediency rather than morality motivated political obedience, and his unshakable secularism fueled countless attacks by his critics.
As contradictory as they were original, Hobbes's ideas are debated to this day. He claimed that his mother gave birth to him upon hearing the rumor that the Spanish Armada was set to destroy the nation.
She gave birth to twins, Hobbes wrote,—himself and fear. His father, also named Thomas, was an uneducated clergyman prone to quarrel. Biographers have posited that both timidity and argumentativeness were notable traits of Hobbes throughout his lifetime.
After Hobbes's father abandoned his parish and family, young Thomas and his brother and sister were raised by their uncle Francis Hobbes, who was successful enough to see that Thomas received a fine education.
At the age of six, Hobbes was learning Greek and Latin. At fourteen he translated Euripides's Medea and was sent to Oxford. Although an adequate student, Hobbes disliked the university, rejected much of what he read there, and went on to criticize universities in much of his later writing.
According to his first biographer, John Aubrey, Hobbes took delight in saying that if he had read as much as other men, he would know as little as other men. Upon receiving a degree inHobbes became tutor to William Cavendish, the son of the first Earl of Devonshire.
Through this association Hobbes made his first trip to the continent and became inspired to study the classics. He was employed as Roger Bacon's secretary in In Hobbes published his translation of Thucydides's history of the Peloponnesian War, an important improvement to what had previously circulated, and intended by Hobbes to serve as a warning to the English of the dangers inherent in Democracy.
Hobbes worked for and tutored many men, including three Cavendishes, until During his teaching career he enjoyed much leisure time and three three-year stays on the continent.
It was there that he met and became friends with Galileo. He met other great minds as well, including Ben Jonson, Abbe Mersenne, and Pierre Gassendi, and became fascinated with the study of motion.
Profoundly stirred by his chance discovery of Euclid, Hobbes considered applying the science of geometry to politics. He wrote a treatise in on citizenship and absolutism, The Elements of Law Natural and Politique, which circulated widely in manuscript form.
He began work on a proposed trilogy on the body, the man, and the citizen.
· Butler's argument for morality, found primarily in his sermons, is an attempt to show that morality is a matter of following human nature. To develop this argument, he introduces the notions of nature and of a urbanagricultureinitiative.com://urbanagricultureinitiative.com · Thomas Hobbes famously said that in a "state of nature", human life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short". In the absence of political order and law, everyone would have unlimited natural freedoms, Pufendorf disputed Hobbes's equation of a state of nature with urbanagricultureinitiative.comy · Philosophers · Critical theories · See also · Referencesurbanagricultureinitiative.com Oct 16, · Throughout the centuries many philosophers and great minds have postulated many interpretations to the nature of humanity. Human nature is one of the most controversial topics in society, since the topic .
After the publication of Leviathan inHobbes returned to England, notorious but respected at the same time, and carried on years of controversies, notably with Bishop John Bramhall on free will and on mathematics with John Wallis, the inventor of algebra.
Hobbes, considered an atheist by many in Parliament, was saved from a charge of Christian heresy by the intercession of the King, who ordered Hobbes to refrain from further publishing any inflammatory works.
In Hobbes wrote a brief, compelling autobiography and inat age 86, translated the Iliad and the Odyssey. Hobbes died December 4, Major Works Critics have always characterized Hobbes as a mature writer, with his first original book, Elementorum Philosophiae Sectio Tertia De Civebeing published when he was fifty-four.
The case has recently been made that three of the Discourses are the product of a young Hobbes, the work originally having been included in an anonymous volume ofHorae Subsecivae.
The execution of the King in spurred Hobbes's desire to provide guidance for his country, and he published Human Nature and De Corpore Politicowhich included much of The Elements of Law, a work that would not be published in its entirety until England, Hobbes felt, had gone wrong, and war had been the result.
· Thomas Hobbes is a leading proponent and defender of social contract theory. Hobbes’s model is premised upon a dark view of human nature. I will argue that Hobbes’s view is unjustifiable, and [email protected]/hobbess-error-and-problems.
· Hutcheson’s and butler’s. roughly until Hobbes, self-love had been an object of constant but rather moderate philosophical interest, and with a rather unsettled moral status.
Aristotle, for example, Hobbes’ account of human nature and morality, however, fundamentally changed the settings. According to his “picture of human na-urbanagricultureinitiative.com · Joseph Butler the moral philosopher is in that long line of eighteenth-century thinkers who sought to answer Thomas Hobbes on human nature and moral motivation.
Following the Third Earl of Shaftesbury, he rejects any purely egoistic conception of these. Instead, he analyses human nature urbanagricultureinitiative.com Thomas Hobbes: Moral and Political Philosophy. The most consequential aspect of Hobbes's account of human nature centers on his ideas about human motivation, and this topic is therefore at the heart of many debates about how .
· Thomas Hobbes famously said that in a "state of nature", human life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short". In the absence of political order and law, everyone would have unlimited natural freedoms, Pufendorf disputed Hobbes's equation of a state of nature with urbanagricultureinitiative.comy · Philosophers · Critical theories · See also · Referencesurbanagricultureinitiative.com Butler holds that following our nature as human beings involves following the conscience that humans possess, which sometimes approves and at other times condemns our actions.
It is this principle of reflection, or conscience—which passes judgment on us and our actions—that is superior and is a reasonable form of self-love.