She is enrolled at the Australia National University but currently spends more time on her couch than in her office or the library. Of course the PhD Lifestyle is not like that for everybody. And no coursework means very little reason to be on campus.
Darwin also made the first suggestion of group selection in The Descent of Man that the evolution of groups could affect the survival of individuals. He wrote, "If one man in a tribe In a tribe thus rendered more numerous there would always be a rather better chance of Group think thesis birth of other superior and inventive members.
InJohn Maynard Smith C. Perrins and George C. Unit of selectioninclusive fitnessand inclusive fitness in humans Early group selection models assumed that genes acted independently, for example a gene that coded for cooperation or altruism. Genetically-based reproduction of individuals implies that, in group formation, the altruistic genes would need a way to act for the benefit of members in the group to enhance the fitness of many individuals with the same gene.
This would put cooperating individuals at a disadvantage, making genes for cooperation tend to be eliminated.
In this model, genetically related individuals cooperate because survival advantages to one individual also benefit kin who share some fraction of the same genes, giving a mechanism for favoring genetic selection. This behavior could emerge under conditions such that the statistical likelihood that benefits accrue to the survival and reproduction of other organisms whom also carry the social trait.
Inclusive fitness theory is a general treatment of the statistical probabilities of social traits accruing to any other organisms likely to propagate a copy of the same social trait. A significant group of biologists support inclusive fitness as the explanation for social behavior in a wide range of species, as supported by experimental data.
An article was published in Nature with over a hundred coauthors. Any altruistic act has to preserve similar genes. One argument given by Hamilton is that many individuals operate in "viscous" conditions, so that they live in physical proximity to relatives. Under these conditions, they can act altruistically to any other individual, and it is likely that the other individual will be related.
This population structure builds a continuum between individual selection, kin selection, kin group selection and group selection without a clear boundary for each level. However, early theoretical models by D. This is because any benefit generated by kin cooperation is exactly cancelled out by kin competition; additional offspring from cooperation are eliminated by local competition.
Wilson later showed that if the population is allowed to fluctuate, then local populations can temporarily store the benefit of local cooperation and promote the evolution of cooperation and altruism.
This is because local competition among more individuals resulting from local altruism increases the average local fitness of the individuals that survive. The phenotype of altruism relies on recognition of the altruistic behavior by itself. The trait of kindness will be recognized by sufficiently intelligent and undeceived organisms in other individuals with the same trait.
Moreover, the existence of such a trait predicts a tendency for kindness to unrelated organisms that are apparently kind, even if the organisms are of a completely different species.
The gene need not be exactly the same, so long as the effect or phenotype is similar. Multiple versions of the gene—or even meme —would have virtually the same effect.
This explanation was given by Richard Dawkins as an analogy of a man with a green beard. Green-bearded men tend to cooperate with each other simply by seeing a green beard, where the green beard trait is incidentally linked to the reciprocal kindness trait.
Unit of selection Kin selection or inclusive fitness is accepted as an explanation for cooperative behavior in many species, but there are some species, including some human behavior, that are difficult to explain with only this approach.
David Sloan Wilson has argued that other factors must also be considered in evolution. On the other hand, kin selection is accepted as an explanation of altruistic behavior.
They considered whether groups can have functional organization in the same way as individuals, and consequently whether groups can be "vehicles" for selection. They do not posit evolution on the level of the species, but selective pressures that winnow out small groups within a species, e.
Groups that cooperate better might survive and reproduce more than those that did not. Wilson argued for multi-level selection, including group selection, to correct what they saw as deficits in the explanatory power of inclusive fitness.
Wilson himself compared his model to such a set. Wilson compared the layers of competition and evolution to nested sets of Russian matryoshka dolls.
The different levels function cohesively to maximize fitness, or reproductive success. The theory asserts that selection for the group level, involving competition between groups, must outweigh the individual level, involving individuals competing within a group, for a group-benefiting trait to spread.
The assumption is that variation between different groups is larger than variation within groups. Competition and selection can operate at all levels regardless of scale. Wilson wrote, "At all scales, there must be mechanisms that coordinate the right kinds of action and prevent disruptive forms of self-serving behavior at lower levels of social organization.Nov 16, · Both group think that is born of the masses--a fear of acting uniquely (i.e., creatively)--and group think that is imposed from above or through power structures (you could do some lightFoucault on this piece) endanger society.
Group-shift can be viewed as actually a special case of groupthink. The decision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion.
Whether the shift in the group’s decision is toward greater caution or more risk depends on the dominant prediscussion norm. The thesis may be a bit simplistic, but it is abundantly clear from this book and from what we see around us that groupthink can be problematic.
We see the results of group think everywhere and around us every day. Truthfully, I think this book shoots holes in the superiority of theory of team judgement.
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How to Write a PhD Thesis. How to write a thesis? This guide gives simple and practical advice on the problems of getting started, getting organised, dividing the huge task into less formidable pieces and working on those pieces. Bethel’s undergraduate college, located in St. Paul, Minnesota, provides bachelor’s degrees for recent high school graduates within a lively Christian community.