This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract The runoff components were identified in the headwater area of Shule River Basin, using isotopic and chemical tracing with particular focus on the temporal variations of catchment sources. A total of 95 samples, including precipitation, groundwater, and glacial meltwater, were collected and analyzed for stable water isotopes 18O and 2H and major chemical ion parameters potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate. Based on the isotope and water chemistry data, we applied end member mixing analysis EMMA to identify and quantify the major runoff generating sources and their contributions.
April showers bring May flowers. This, however, is not true for the 67 million people living in the beautiful Kingdom of Thailand. For those residing and working in the popular centers of this country, certain times of the year bring a thick layer of smog and smoke that brings with it a real health threat.
Air pollution is no new phenomenon. But is there any truth in this? Is air quality bad in Thailand? I want to know if living in Thailand is a recipe for a respiratory disease and poor general health as a result of air pollution.
Or is it all roses, as we are often led to believe? So I decided to investigate: In fact, the World Health Organization estimates that each year 2 million people die prematurely from the poisonous gases that make up smog. When discussing air quality and air pollution, the amount of particulates in the atmosphere is of the utmost importance, as they generally have the most adverse effects on human health.
So I'll mostly refer to these two factors in my comparisons. How Bad is the Air Pollution in Bangkok? Bangkok is the second most polluted province in Thailand, behind Saraburi.
It is worthwhile to note that some areas of Bangkok register much higher on the scale than others. The level of pollution does depend on where you are.
It also depends on the wind factor, because pollution will gather and stick around smog if the wind doesn't blow it away from the city. This is seen clearly here at the Plume websitewhere some days the advice is that it's good to be out and about, and on other days the advice is to be very cautious.
For example, Samut Prakan and Samut Sakhon, where many factories are based, measured andrespectively. Again, both very unhealthy.
There are some areas of Bangkok with more healthy pollution readings, but you have to be careful when looking at the data, because often key data is missing.
More on that later. When we look at another reading of Pathum Thani with the PM10 data included, the picture not so healthy.
And remember this still doesn't include PM 2. When we look at Bangkok PM10 levels vs. Unfortunately, Bangkok is getting worse.
The annual average air quality in was 72, with a high of over This rate of expansion will only result in further pollution, unless drastic measures are brought in to combat diesel vehicles and factory emissions.
But again, these readings are without the PM2. However, accounting for an uplift in PM 2. So about the same, probably, when accounting for the missing PM 2. Areas around Chonburi and Pattaya registered at between with PM 2.
Do note that these are overall statistics, and AQIs will vary for different areas within a city.
Good but unreliable, because the PM2. How Polluted is Chiang Mai? If that's correct, it certainly wouldn't be safe to go outside.
That said, checking every couple of days or so, as I do, Chiang Mai is generally less polluted than Bangkok — but not far off!
This has had a debilitating effect on the air in Northern Thailand, which is home to many agricultural regions, as well as the urban hub of Chiang Mai. Lack of regulation and frequent dumping has led to a rapidly worsening situation.
The World Bank estimated that air pollution related deaths in Thailand have risen nearly 20, in the past 20 years. It is evident that higher populated areas of Thailand are more prone to high levels of air pollution and potential health problems.THE MOST IMPORTANT INDEPENDENT VARIABLES IN FERMENTATION.
There are two key independent variables worth considering: (a) Sugar concentration. After crushing the grapes the next step in the making of wine is the fermentation of the grape juice and pulp with various yeasts and bacteria.
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