The peoples of east-central Europe enjoyed a degree of freedom in the s unique in their history. Adolf Hitler third from right participating in a Nazi parade in Munich, c.
Italy allied with Germany and declared war on the United Kingdom and France in Inin an uneven match, he invaded Ethiopia and later sent troops and planes to support Franco in the Spanish Civil War.
While most of the country still wanted to avoid getting involved in the fighting, sentiment was growing to extend material aid to the Allies. Roosevelt also tried to mediate, and he thought he had gotten Benito Mussolini to agree not to bring Italy into the war. But Mussolini wanted war, and had already promised Hitler he would intervene.
But his ventures in France, East Africa, North Africa, and particularly Greece met with crushing failure, and he required rescue by Nazi forces.
In a speech on February 23,Mussolini blamed defeats in Libya on the fact that the British attacked before he was ready to launch his own offensive. In Marchhe launched a major offensive by invading Greece as part of his larger, ill-timed bid to pursue a Balkan campaign.
After the campaign failed Mussolini required German aid to disentangle his forces. Badoglio signed an unconditional surrender to the Allies the following September, and declared war on Germany, which quickly occupied most of the country.
This was the beginning of a tormented period for Italy, marked by the double occupation by the Allies south of Rome and the Germans in the north, the formation of a resistance movement against the Germans and the sad events of the civil war between partisans and the combatants of the Social Republic, a brief-lived regime in the north.
Marshall Badoglio was called to preside at a Government Cabinet mainly formed byprofessionals. Meanwhile, Italian opponents of the fascist regime applied pressure for the immediate elimination of fascism, separation from Germany, and the pursuit of an armistice with the Allied governments to reach a separate peace treaty later.
The governments of the United States and Great Britain responded to the dismissal of Mussolini by requiring Italy to surrender unconditionally to the Allied Forces.
This Anglo-American request for unconditional surrender made negotiations more difficult and protracted, and it was decided that the Allies should enter Italy and that the armistice should be announced around the middle of September As German forces fortified positions, the Allied troops moved to land in Sicily.
In September,as Allied Forces continued landings in Sicily, the Italian Resistance began to form partisan units all over Italy to support the expulsion of German occupationforces.
The Resistance was created not merely as a military force, but a wide political movement that expressed national regeneration and rejected fascism and Nazism. It was a movement of workers, fighters, peasants and priests.
On 12 Septembera German raid freed Mussolini from the jail in which he had been imprisoned. On his arrival in Munich, Germany, Mussolini reconstituted the Fascist Party, proclaiming allegiance to his former republican and socialist programs while laying the blame for the defeat on betrayers and saboteurs.
Meanwhile, in the South, a government led by Badoglio was constituted. This provisional governmentdeclared war on Germany on September 13 and was acknowledged as a "co-belligerent" bythe Allies. The advance of the Allied armies towards the North was stopped for the first time during the winter on the "Gustav Line" and the second time during the winter on the "Gothic Line".
The spring of brought the renewal of the war activity on every front of the European zone; in Italy the breaking of the "Gothic Line" took place. The Allied armies, with the participation of the Italian Liberation Corps and the partisan brigades, broke into the PadanaValley.
On May 6,Germany surrendered.Italy - The Fascist era: The political crisis of the postwar years provided an opportunity for militant, patriotic movements, including those of ex-servicemen and former assault troops, students, ex-syndicalists, and former pro-war agitators. D’Annunzio in Fiume led one such movement, but the ex-Socialist journalist Benito Mussolini soon became even more prominent, founding his fasci di.
Although Adolf Hitler’s Nazi revolution was modeled after the rise of Mussolini and the Italian Fascist Party, Fascist Italy and Il Duce Sign up now to learn about This Day in History. Fascism: A Very Short Introduction. Kevin Passmore Very Short Introductions. Succinct history of fascism, from its pre-World War I origins to the contemporary resurgence of the far right; Draws on recent research on fascism, making sense of the highly complicated and various forms and ideas; Coverage of eastern as well as western Europe.
Introduction: the origins of American hegemony in Europe The United States and the rise of fascism in Italy United States economic policy toward Italy The United States and Italy confront the Great Depression Roosevelt and fascist Italy, from the London Economic Conference to the Italo-Ethiopian War () --Conclusion.
History Prehistory and antiquity a pioneer in Cosmic Rays and X-ray astronomy) and a number of Italian physicists were forced to leave Italy in the s by Fascist laws against Jews,.
in , is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe Official languages: Italianᵃ.
He then looks at the paradoxes of fascism through its origins in the political and social crisis of the late nineteenth century, the history of fascist movements and regimes in Italy and Germany, and the fortunes of 'failed' fascist movements in Romania, Hungary and Spain.4/5(2).