An analysis of the use of genetic engineering in growing food in south australia

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An analysis of the use of genetic engineering in growing food in south australia

Scary Reasons to Buy Organic Milk Growth Hormones Inthe FDA approved recombinant bovine growth hormone rBGHa synthetic cow hormone that spurs milk production when injected into dairy cows, and consumer groups have been concerned about it ever since.

The manipulation of growth hormone in the AquaBounty salmon has sparked similar concerns. By itself, rBGH has no discernible effect in humans and is of little concern to your health, and the growth hormone in AquaBounty's salmon is expected to be inconsequential to your health as well.

The actual fear is that manipulating growth hormones in cows -- or salmon -- may increase another hormone, insulin-like growth factor IGFwhich could mimic the effects of human growth hormone in harmful ways.

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Higher blood levels of IGF regardless of what causes them have been associated with an increased risk of breast, prostate, and other cancers in humans.

In a study, patients with above-average IGF levels had nearly a 50 percent higher risk of prostate cancer and a 65 percent higher risk of hormone-dependent premenopausal breast cancer than people with below-average levels.

Many factors -- including genes, smoking, and fat intake -- contribute to these cancers, but "it's very likely that at least part of that [risk] is related to IGF levels," especially where prostate cancer is concerned, says Walter Willett, M. While consuming lots of milk and other dairy has been shown to raise blood levels of human IGF, the increase is probably not a direct effect of the animal's IGF level or the IGF found in these foods.

An analysis of the use of genetic engineering in growing food in south australia

That's because the amount of IGF in dairy products -- whether or not it's from rBGH-treated cows -- pales in comparison to what is naturally in your body.

And you'd have to eat at least three-ounce servings of genetically modified salmon. The IGF levels in the AquaBounty salmon and regular salmon are comparable, although consumer advocates say the studies that determined this are too small to be reliable.

Milk in general -- and the proteins, sugar, minerals, and non-IGF hormones it contains -- may somehow cause the human body to make more of its own IGF, Dr. Ranchers have been fattening up cattle with sex hormones -- most notably estrogen -- since the s. Today most beef cows in the U.

These hormones are not given to chicken and pigs because they don't have the same growth-promoting effect in these animals, although antibiotics are given to all three species for similar growth-promoting reasons.

One concern is that such hormones may spur earlier puberty in children, who are, on average, entering puberty at a younger age than they did a generation or two ago, for reasons that are unclear. But Ann Macrina, Ph. A three-ounce serving of beef from an estrogen-treated cow contains less than a billionth of a gram of estrogen, a level aroundtimes lower than estrogen in women and nearlytimes lower than that in men.

However, even miniscule amounts of estrogen could affect prepubescent girls and boys, says Dr. Still, hormones added to the food supply are probably not the biggest culprit behind early puberty.

It's more likely that meat, milk, and similar foods help trigger earlier puberty because they are rich in protein, calories, and nutrients, says Marcia Herman-Giddens, an adjunct professor at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health, in Chapel Hill, and the lead author of an influential study on early puberty in girls.

However, Herman-Giddens cautions that more research is needed to untangle the many factors involved. For instance, she says, rising rates of overweight and obesity -- and the processed foods, high-calorie drinks, and lack of exercise driving them -- are "probably the biggest reason" for the trend toward earlier puberty.

Fat cells stimulate the body to produce estrogen.

Pesticides, flame-retardants, plastics, and other chemicals in the environment that can disrupt hormones may also be partly to blame. Organic beef and dairy products certified by the U. They also come with a much heftier price. Is the peace of mind worth the extra cash?

Probably not, says Dr. Willett, who advocates cutting back on meat in general. Most people should eat no more than two servings of red meat per week, Dr.

Willett says, and "if you're [only] having a couple of servings a week, it doesn't make much difference whether it's organic or not. Willett offers similar advice regarding organic dairy.

On the other hand, experts like Herman-Giddens urge consumers to stay away from rBGH-treated milk because of its potentially higher IGF levels, and the fact that it does not have any added health benefits over regular milk. Instead of switching to organic milk, Dr.

Willett recommends cutting back on dairy altogether, despite USDA recommendations that call for three servings a day of dairy. In fact, Chassy argues that manipulating growth hormones has benefits: Similarly, the AquaBounty salmon consumes 10 percent less feed during its lifecycle than a regular farmed salmon.GM food products on sale in Australia and New Zealand – either as a whole food or as an ingredient in a processed food – must have their GM status identified if introduced genetic material or.

The one process ongoing that will take millions of years to correct is the loss of genetic and species diversity by the destruction of natural habitats.

Department of Agriculture & Food, South Perth WA , Australia. 8. Corresponding author email: [email protected] 9. Abstract. Using genetic engineering, however, requires a and to reveal genetic differences within species. The QTL analysis (i) identifies.

News on Japan, Business News, Opinion, Sports, Entertainment and More. The articles in this 'GMO Issues' section of the Say No To GMOs! site were originally posted many years ago but they still provide some of the most relevant and germinal analysis available.

Agricultural genetic engineering is a promissory science that set itself up to fail from the get-go. In this talk I'm going to put forward the possible reasons for this.

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