See Article History Opium trade, in Chinese historythe traffic that developed in the 18th and 19th centuries in which Western countries, mostly Great Britainexported opium grown in India and sold it to China. The British used the profits from the sale of opium to purchase such Chinese luxury goods as porcelain, silk, and tea, which were in great demand in the West. Opium was first introduced to China by Turkish and Arab traders in the late 6th or early 7th century ce.
Opium alkaloids The pharmacologically active principles of opium reside in its alkaloidsthe most important of which, morphineconstitutes about 10 percent by weight of raw opium.
Other active alkaloids such as papaverine and codeine are present in smaller proportions.
Opium alkaloids are of two types, depending on chemical structure and action. Morphine, codeine, and thebaine, which represent one type, act upon the central nervous system and are analgesicnarcotic, and potentially addicting compounds.
Papaverine, noscapine formerly called narcotineand most of the other opium alkaloids A history of china in opium war only to relax involuntary smooth muscles. Physiological actions of opiates Opiates e. Their principal action is to relieve or suppress pain. The drugs also alleviate anxiety ; induce relaxation, drowsiness, and sedation; and may impart a state of euphoria or other enhanced mood.
Opiates also have important physiological effects: Opiates are addictive drugs; they produce a physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms that can only be assuaged by continued use of the drug. With chronic use, the body develops a tolerance to opiates, so that progressively larger doses are needed to achieve the same effect.
The higher opiates—heroin and morphine—are more addictive than opium or codeine. Opiates are classified as narcotics because they relieve pain, induce stupor and sleepand produce addiction.
The habitual use of opium produces physical and mental deterioration and shortens life. An acute overdose of opium causes respiratory depression which can be fatal. Opium was for many centuries the principal painkiller known to medicine and was used in various forms and under various names.
Laudanumfor example, was an alcoholic tincture dilute solution of opium that was used in European medical practice as an analgesic and sedative.
Physicians relied on paregoric, a camphorated solution of opium, to treat diarrhea by relaxing the gastrointestinal tract.
The narcotic effects of opium are mainly attributable to morphine, which was first isolated about In it was discovered that treating morphine with acetic anhydride yields heroinwhich is four to eight times as potent as morphine in both its pain-killing properties and its addictive potential.
The other alkaloids naturally present in opium are much weaker; codeine, for example, is only one-sixth as potent as morphine and is used mainly for cough relief. Since the late s, various synthetic drugs have been developed that possess the analgesic properties of morphine and heroin.
These drugs, which include meperidine Demerolmethadonelevorphonal, and many others, are known as synthetic opioids. They have largely replaced morphine and heroin in the treatment of severe pain. Opiates achieve their effect on the brain because their structure closely resembles that of certain molecules called endorphinswhich are naturally produced in the body.
Endorphins suppress pain and enhance mood by occupying certain receptor sites on specific neurons nerve cells that are involved in the transmission of nervous impulses.
Opiate alkaloids are able to occupy the same receptor sites, thereby mimicking the effects of endorphins in suppressing the transmission of pain impulses within the nervous system. History of opium The opium poppy was native to what is now Turkey.
Ancient Assyrian herb lists and medical texts refer to both the opium poppy plant and opium, and in the 1st century ce the Greek physician Dioscorides described opium in his treatise De materia medica, which was the leading Western text on pharmacology for centuries.
The growth of poppies for their opium content spread slowly eastward from Mesopotamia and Greece. Apparently, opium was unknown in either India or China in ancient times, and knowledge of the opium poppy first reached China about the 7th century.
At first, opium was taken in the form of pills or was added to beverages. The oral intake of raw opium as a medicine does not appear to have produced widespread addictions in ancient Asian societies.
Opium smoking began only after the early Europeans in North America discovered the Indian practice of smoking tobacco in pipes. Some smokers began to mix opium with tobacco in their pipes, and smoking gradually became the preferred method of taking opium. Opium smoking was introduced into China from Java in the 17th century and spread rapidly.
The Chinese authorities reacted by prohibiting the sale of opium, but these edicts were largely ignored. During the 18th century European traders found in China an expanding and profitable market for the drug, and the opium trade enabled them to acquire Chinese goods such as silk and tea without having to spend precious gold and silver.
As a result of their defeat in the Opium Warsthe Chinese were compelled to legalize the importation of opium in Opium addiction remained a problem in Chinese society until the Communists came to power in and eradicated the practice.
In the West, opium came into wide use as a painkiller in the 18th century, and opium, laudanum, and paregoric were active ingredients in many patent medicines. These drugs were freely available without legal or medical restrictions, and the many cases of addiction they caused did not arouse undue social concern.Imperial Twilight: The Opium War and the End of China's Last Golden Age [Stephen R.
Platt] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. As China reclaims its position as a world power, Imperial Twilight looks back to tell the story of the country's last age of ascendance and how it came to an end in the nineteenth-century Opium War.
The First Opium War (Chinese: 第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China..
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the demand for Chinese goods (particularly. Smoking of opium declined in the 20th century, partly because it had been supplanted by more-potent derivatives and partly because of determined efforts in China and other developing countries to eradicate it.
In the late s, drug-control programs headed by the United Nations and by individual governments contributed to a reduction in opium poppy cultivation in the Golden Triangle.
Dr. R.G. Tiedemann gives a survey of the factors behind the ignominious Opium Wars that the U.K. fought and won years ago, first published in China Now magazine See also Opium in China. In the colony of Hong Kong was returned to China. Hong Kong Island became a British possession as a direct result of the Opium War, the opening shots of which were fired years ago.
Dr. R.G. Tiedemann gives a survey of the factors behind the ignominious Opium Wars that the U.K. fought and won years ago, first published in China Now magazine See also Opium in China.
In the colony of Hong Kong was returned to China. Hong Kong Island became a British possession as a direct result of the Opium War, the opening shots of which were fired years ago.
Jul 03, · In an email interview, Mr. Platt discussed the origins of the Opium War and its influence on China’s relations with the world today.